Wed, Apr 17, 2024

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Gastro Flash Vol-8 No-3, 2022

Gastro Flash Vol-8 No-3, 2022

Gut microbiota Human gastrointestinal system is home for approximately 100 trillion microorganisms, known as the gut microbiota (GM). GM is a complex, dynamic, and spatially heterogeneous ecosystem inhabited by a myriad of microorganisms interacting with each other and with the human host, including bacteria, fungi, archae, and viruses. GM, being metabolically active is associated with various functions, such as nutrition, immune development, and host defense; signifying the key role of GM in the maintenance of human health
Lactose intolerance Lactose intolerance is a clinical condition characterised by the presence of gastrointestinal signs and symptoms secondary to consumption of food substances containing lactose. It is the deficiency of lactase due to primary or econdary causes that is associated with presence of GI symptoms. Lactase deficiency results in increased osmotic load which increases the intestinal water content. Also, lactose is readily fermented by the colonic microbiome leading to production of short chain fatty acids and gas [mainly hydrogen (H2), carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4)] causing the clinical syndrome of abdominal cramps, bloating, diarrhoea, and flatulence (Figure 1).