×

Warning

JUser: :_load: Unable to load user with ID: 688

Sun, Jul 14, 2024

top blank header

Nephro Flash Vol-8 No-1, 2022

Nephro Flash Vol-8 No-1, 2022

Introduction Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most common cause of death in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has a myriad of direct negative effects on the cardiovascular system. The main causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with CKD are the cardiovascular diseases such as coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death represent. The condition involves close linkage between heart and kidneys and also traditional and non-traditional cardiovascular risk factors. As per a well-established classification of cardiorenal syndrome, cardiovascular involvement in CKD is known as “type-4 cardiorenal syndrome” (chronic renocardiac syndrome).
Overview Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an important public health challenge and the prevalence of CKD is estimated to be 10 to 14% in the general population; these rates are expected to increase modestly over the next 20 years. African Americans, American Indians, Hispanics, and South Asians, specifically, people from developing nations like Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, and India, are at increased risk of having CKD. CKD is chiefly defined as presence of kidney damage or estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR)